2020-04-30
CCD Glossary

CCD Glossary

- B -


Bias frame

Acquisition without exposure in order to generate an image of electronic noise only, as opposed to total background noise which includes charge accumulation due to dark current


Binning

Acquisition mode grouping adjacent pixels during readout. The larger resulting pixels collect more light per unit and their lesser number allows higher acquisition speeds.


- C -


CCCP

CCD Controller for Counting Photons, the patented technology that allows an EMCCD to operate faster and more reliably for low light applications


CCD

Charge-coupled device based on a silicon semiconductor to convert photons in measurable electric signal


CIC

Clock-induced charges, the main noise source in EMCCD cameras in photon counting


Crop mode

Acquisition mode where exposure is restricted to a smaller region of interest and the rest of the detector shielded to be used as a storage area. This allows minimal line transfers after exposure instead of complete frame transfer and results in very fast acquisition rates.


CTE

Charge transfer efficiency, the fraction of electrons displaced between adjacent pixels during the read-out process


- D -


Dark current

A noise source in the form of current resulting of the thermal agitation of atoms that make up the detector


- E -


EM gain

Electron-multiplying gain, an amplification parameter used in EMCCDs to obtain less than 1 ē of effective read-out noise


EMCCD

Electron-multiplying CCD, a CCD designed with an extra register for photoelectron amplification by an avalanche effect


ENF

Excess noise factor, a consequence of the stochastic nature of the gain in both EMCCDs and ICCDs that decreases SNR


- F -


Fast kinetic mode

Acquisition mode where exposures are conducted consecutively several times with minimal line transfer before readout. This enables bursts of images with short exposure times and low latency between successive exposures.


- I -


ICCD

Intensified charge-coupled device


IMO

Inverted mode operation, a method of driving the EMCCD detector that minimizes dark current at the expense of increased clock-induced charges


- L -


Linear mode

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Processing mode where EMCCD camera images are generated linearly in response to incoming light
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Low fringing

EMCCD detector optimized for a wide range of visible imaging spanning from near-ultraviolet into near-infrared


LPS

Lines per second


- M -


Midband

EMCCD detector optimized for visible imaging with a higher sensitivity to blue and red light


- M -


mROI

Multiple region of interest


- N -


NIMO

Non-inverted mode operation, a method of driving the EMCCD detector that minimizes CIC at the expense of increased dark current


- P -


Photoelectron

Electron generated in a detector pixel as a result of an incoming photon


Photon-counting

Processing mode where the ENF of the EMCCD camera is eliminated by non-linear image generation


- Q -


QE

Quantum efficiency, the fraction of incoming photons that are successfully converted into photoelectrons


- R -


ROI

Region of Interest


- S -


SDK

Software development kit


Shot noise

Noise resulting from the Poisson distribution of the generation process of particles such as photons and electrons


SNR

Signal-to-noise ratio


- T -


TDI

Time Delay Integration, acquisition mode to capture images of moving objects at very low light levels


Thermal noise

Noise resulting from the shot noise of the dark current


- U -


UV

Ultra Violet