EMCCD Tutorial
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​EMCCD Tutorial​

EMCCD Tutorial


Low light imaging takes place in various fields, from the infinitely small to the infinitely large. It can occur while tracking down the molecular dynamics of brain synapses with fluorescent markers or studying the atmosphere of a faraway extrasolar planet through spectroscopy. However, in all circumstances, when photons are scarce, the signal reaching the imaging device may be weak enough to blend with the background noise. A strategy to recover the photon signal is thus much needed.

Electron-multiplying C⁣C⁣D⁣ (E⁣M⁣C⁣C⁣D⁣) technology, sometimes referred to as low light level C⁣C⁣D⁣ (L3CCD), is designed to beat down the intrinsic electronic noise of the readout process, which is comparable to a signal of a few photons per exposure. In this way, E⁣M⁣C⁣C⁣D⁣ cameras address the challenges of most low light imaging. They also support faster frame acquisition rates than their C⁣C⁣D⁣ counterparts, making them highly suitable for live imaging. Better still, E⁣M⁣C⁣C⁣D⁣ cameras can offer ultimate sensitivity for the observation of the darkest scenes by becoming wide-field real-time p⁣h⁣o⁣t⁣o⁣n⁣ ⁣c⁣o⁣u⁣n⁣t⁣i⁣n⁣g⁣ imaging devices.

This series of pages has the goal to inform you about the various specificities of E⁣M⁣C⁣C⁣D⁣s⁣; from noise sources & operation modes to advanced p⁣h⁣o⁣t⁣o⁣n⁣ ⁣c⁣o⁣u⁣n⁣t⁣i⁣n⁣g⁣ operation.